On this page: NATO leaders tried and found guilty
This is the view of Douglas Cassel, Director, Centre for International Human Rights -
"At Nuremberg, leading Nazis were sentenced to death for crimes against peace, defined to
mean waging a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties. Because NATO's
war violates the UN Charter - an international treaty - it is a crime against peace."
10 JUNE 2000
NATO FOUND GUILTY
Former US Attorney General Issues Call to British Peace Movement.
Abolish NATO Now!
At the final session of the Independent Commission of Inquiry into NATO War Crimes Against
Yugoslavia, called by Ramsey Clark, former Attorney General of the US, held in New York City
on Saturday 1 0 June 2000, NATO was found guilty on 19 counts of crimes against peace,
crimes against humanity and war crimes.
Ramsey Clark concluded the tribunal by issuing a call for a world wide campaign to abolish
NATO. He called upon the British peace movement as follows: "We believe that the final hearing
of the Independent Tribunal WW show that US political and military leaders, and their
co-conspirators in Britain and the other NATO countries, are guilty of Crimes against Peace,
Crimes against humanity and War Crimes.
"The entire world movement against war and exploitation of the world's people and resources
must demand an end to NATO aggression. The aggressive policies of NATO constitute a serious
threat to world peace, and its use of weapons banned under the Geneva Convention is a threat
not only to present generations but to generations to come. Economic sanctions against
Yugoslavia should be lifted and NATO should provide finance for reconstruction and the cleaning
of the poisoned environment. "We believe that the courage of the Yugoslav people in the face of
the NATO onslaught must inspire us for the future.
"In order to ensure a peaceful future for our world and its people, and for an environment that is
safe for ale we must call a halt to NATO aggression. We must also work to prevent a new US
sponsored arms race.
"The most effective sentence the Tribunal can render will be to use its authority to launch a
world-wide campaign to abolish NATO. I urge the peace movement in Britain to join us in
working for world peace and in campaigning for NATO to be abolished."
Ramsey Clark, June 2000.
FINAL JUDGEMENT OF THE COMMISSION OF INQUIRY TO
INVESTIGATE U.S./NATO WAR CRIMES AGAINST THE PEOPLE
The Members of the Independent Commission of Inquiry to Investigate U.S./NATO War Crimes
Against the People of Yugoslavia, meeting in New York, having considered the Initial Charges
and Complaint of the Commission dated July 31, 1999 against President William J. Clinton,
Gen.Wesley Clark, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, Prime Minister Tony Blair, Chancellor
Gerhard Schroder, President Jacques Chirac, Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema, Prime Minister
Jose Maria Azmar, the Governments of the United States and the other NATO member states,
former Secretary General Javier Solana and other NATO leaders, and Others with nineteen
separate Crimes Against Peace, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity in violation of the
Charter of the United Nations, the 1949 Geneva Conventions, other international agreements and
customary international law;
Having the right and obligation as citizens of the world to sit in judgement regarding
violations of international humanitarian law;
Having heard the testimony from Commissions of Inquiry and Tribunals held within their own
countries during the past year and having received reports from numerous other Commission
hearings which recite the evidence there gathered;
Having been provided with documentary evidence, eyewitness statements, photos, videotapes,
special reports, expert analyses and summaries of evidence available to the Commission;
Having access to all evidence, knowledge and expert opinion in the Commission flies or
available to le Commission staff;
Having been provided by the Commission, or otherwise obtained, various books, articles
and other written materials on various aspects of events and conditions in Yugoslavia and other
countries in the Balkans, and in the military and arms establishments;
Having considered newspaper coverage, magazine and periodical reports, special publications,
TV, radio and other media coverage and public statements by the accused, other public officials
and public materials;
Having heard the presentations of the Commission of Inquiry in public hearing on June 10,
2000, and the testimony, evidence and summaries there presented;
And having met, considered and deliberated with each other and with Commission staff
and having considered all the evidence that is relevant to the nineteen charges of criminal conduct
alleged in the Initial Complaint, make the following findings:
The Members of the International War Crimes Tribunal find the accused Guilty on the basis of
the evidence against them and that each of the nineteen separate crimes alleged in the Initial
Complaint has been established to have been committed beyond a reasonable doubt. These are:
1. Planning and Executing the Dismemberment, Segregation and Impoverishment of
2. Inflicting, Inciting and Enhancing Violence Between and Among Muslims and Slavs.
3. Disrupting Efforts to Maintain Unity, Peace and Stability in Yugoslavia.
4. Destroying the Peace-Making Role of the United Nations.
5. Using NATO for Military Aggression Against, and Occupation of, Non-Compliant Poor
6. Killing and Injuring a Defenceless Population throughout Yugoslavia.
7. Planning, Announcing and Executing Attacks Intended to Assassinate the Head of
Government, Other Government Leaders and Selected Civilians in Yugoslavia.
8. Destroying and Damaging Economic, Social, Cultural, Medical, Diplomatic Facilities -
including the Embassy of the People's Republic of China and other embassies - and Religious
Resources, Properties and Facilities throughout Yugoslavia.
9. Attacking Objects Indispensable to the Survival of the Population of Yugoslavia.
10. Attacking Facilities Containing Dangerous Substances and Forces.
11. Using Depleted Uranium, Cluster Bombs and Other Prohibited Weapons.
12. Waging War on the Environment.
13. Imposing Sanctions through the United Nations that are a Genocidal Crime Against
14. Creating an Illegal Ad-Hoc Criminal Tribunal to Destroy and Demonise the Serbian
Leadership. The Illegitimacy of this Tribunal is Further Demonstrated by Its Failure to Bring
Any Case Regarding the Oppression of the Romany People, Who Have Suffered the Highest
Rate of Casualties of Any People in the Region.
1 5. Using Controlled International Media to Create and Maintain Support for the U.S. Assault
and to Demonise Yugoslavia, Slavs, Serbs and Muslims as Genocidal Murderers.
16. Establishing the Long term Military Occupation of Strategic Parts of Yugoslavia by NATO
17. Attempting to Destroy the Sovereignty, Right to Self-Determination, Democracy and
Culture of the Slavic, Muslim, Roma and Other People's of Yugoslavia.
18. Seeking to Establish U.S. Domination and Control of Yugoslavia and to Exploit Its People
19. Using the Means of Military Force and Economic Coercion in Order to Achieve U.S.
The Members hold NATO, the NATO states and their leaders accountable for their criminal acts
and condemn those found guilty in the strongest possible terms. The Members condemn the
NATO bombardments, denounce the international crimes and violations of international
humanitarian law committed by the armed attack and through other means such as economic
sanctions. NATO has acted lawlessly and has attempted to abolish international law.
All Members urge the immediate revocation of all embargoes, sanctions and penalties against
Yugoslavia because they constitute a continuing crime against humanity. The Members call for the
immediate end to the NATO occupation of all Yugoslav territory, the removal of all NATO and
U.S. bases and forces from the Balkans region, and the cessation of overt and covert operations,
including the "International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia" in the Hague, aimed at
overthrowing the government of Yugoslavia.
The Members further call for full reparations to be paid to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia for
death, injury, economic and environmental damage resulting from the NATO bombing, economic
sanctions and blockades. Further, other states in the region which have suffered economic and
environmental damage due to the NATO bombing and economic sanctions on Yugoslavia must
also be awarded reparations. The Members condemn the threat or use of military technology
against life, both civilian and military, as was used by the NATO powers against the people of
The Members urge public action and mobilisation to stop new and continued sanctions and
aggressions by the U.S. and other NATO powers against Iraq, Cuba, North Korea, the
countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, Puerto Rico, Asia, Sudan, Colombia
and other countries. We ask for the immediate cessation of oven/covert activities by the U.S. and
NATO in such countries.
The Members believe that the interests of peace, justice and human progress require the abolition
of NATO, Which has proved itself beyond any doubt to be an instrument of aggression for the
dominant, colonizing powers, particularly the United States. The Pentagon, the central and key
element of NATO and the greatest single threat to the people of the world, must be disbanded.
The Members urge the Commission to provide for the permanent preservation of the reports,
evidence and materials gathered to make them available to others, and to seek ways to provide
the widest possible distribution of the truth about the U.S./NATO war on Yugoslavia.
We urge all people of the world
We urge all people of the world to act on recommendations developed by the Commission to
hold power accountable and to secure social justice on which lasting peace must be based.
Done in New York this 10th day of June, 2000
International Action Center
A panel of 1 6 judges from 11 countries at a people's tribunal meeting in New York June 1 0
before 500 people found U.S. and NATO political and military leaders guilty of war crimes
against Yugoslavia in the March 24-June 10, 1999 assault on that country.
Former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark, the lead prosecutor at the International Tribunal
on U.S./NATO War Crimes Against Yugoslavia, urged those present and those they represented
from the 21 countries participating to carry out a sentence of organising a campaign to abolish the
NATO military pact.
Ben Dupuy, former ambassador from Haiti, Rev. Kiyul Chung of Korea, and auto worker
Martha Grevatt, who heads the AFL-CIO's organization Pride at Work, read the three parts of
Participants taking the witness stand included eye-witnesses, researchers who visited Yugoslavia,
renowned political and economics analysts, historians, physicists, biologists, military experts,
journalists and lay researchers.
Many of these witnesses have in the past 15 months presented to audiences worldwide a
complete picture of the war NATO waged against Yugoslavia. For the tribunal, however, all
limited themselves to a single area of expertise that made up a single part of the evidence against
the political and military leaders of the United States and the other NATO countries.
Taken together, the judges decided, each single part contributed to construct a proof that beyond
a reasonable doubt proved the guilt of the accused, just as the proper placing of single tiles can
build a mosaic.
The witnesses' presentations were accompanied in many cases by slides and videos displayed on
a large screen on the stage of the auditorium at Martin Luther King Jr. High School in Manhattan.
This screen was easily visible both to the judges, who sat on the stage, and to the hundreds in the
audience, many of whom stayed throughout the nine-hour day.
In addition, pictures and videos were on display in the hall outside the auditoriums, and
documentary evidence was offered in books or in research papers.
The International Action Center, founded by Ramsey Clark in 1992, organised this final session
of the tribunal. There were also participants who had organized similar tribunal hearings in
Germany, Italy, Austria, Russia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia, and Greece where, last November in
Athens, thousands declared U.S. President Clinton a war criminal.
In addition to the witnesses, there were also important guest presentations from representatives of
the governments Yugoslavia and Cuba. In addition, Ismael Guadalupe from Vieques, Puerto Rico
showed in a poweful speech how the practice runs against his snmn island laid the basis for
U.S./NATO aggression around the world.
According to the IAC organisers, total registration, including justices, witnesses and staff was
511. Invited speakers, witnesses and judges came from Haiti, Spain, Turkey, Korea, Roma,
Puerto Rico, India, Gemany, United States, Canada, Italy, Yugoslavia, Russia, Britain, Belgium,
Iraq, Greece, Austria, France, and Portugal. The U. S. government refused visas to four people
from Ukraine, whose message was read from the stage.
There were also representatives of the Roma people, called gypsies, and the verdict took note
that the persecution of Roma people has never before been made an issue before an international
Five different television crews taped the entire proceedings, including Serbian television and a
three-camera crew from Australia, as well as alternate media sources in the U.S. like the Peoples
International Action Center
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